Photography & Art for a visual hungry world
New media are forms of media that are native to computers, computational and relying on computers for redistribution. Some examples of new media are telephones, computers, virtual worlds, single media, website games, human-computer interface, computer animation and interactive computer installations.
Interactivity has become a term for a number of new media use options evolving from the rapid dissemination of Internet access points, the digitalization of media, and media convergence. In 1984, Rice defined new media as communication technologies that enable or facilitate user-to-user interactivity and interactivity between user and information. Such a definition replaces the "one-to-many" model of traditional mass communication with the possibility of a "many-to-many" web of communication. Any individual with the appropriate technology can now produce his or her online media and include images, text, and sound about whatever he or she chooses. Thus the convergence of new methods of communication with new technologies shifts the model of mass communication, and radically reshapes the ways we interact and communicate with one another. In "What is new media?" Vin Crosbie (2002) described three different kinds of communication media. He saw Interpersonal media as "one to one", Mass media as "one to many", and finally New Media as Individuation Media or "many to many".
When we think of interactivity and its meaning, we assume that it is only prominent in the conversational dynamics of individuals who are face-to-face. This restriction of opinion does not allow us to see its existence in mediated communication forums. Interactivity is present in some programming work, such as video games. It's also viable in the operation of traditional media. In the mid 1990s, filmmakers started using inexpensive digital cameras to create films. It was also the time when moving image technology had developed, which was able to be viewed on computer desktops in full motion. This development of new media technology was a new method for artists to share their work and interact with the big world. Other settings of interactivity include radio and television talk shows, letters to the editor, listener participation in such programs, and computer and technological programming. Interactive new media has become a true benefit to every one because people can express their artwork in more than one way with the technology that we have today and there is no longer a limit to what we can do with our creativity.
Interactivity can be considered a central concept in understanding new media, but different media forms possess, or enable different degrees of interactivity, and some forms of digitized and converged media are not in fact interactive at all. Tony Feldman considers digital satellite television as an example of a new media technology that uses digital compression to dramatically increase the number of television channels that can be delivered, and which changes the nature of what can be offered through the service, but does not transform the experience of television from the user's point of view, and thus lacks a more fully interactive dimension. It remains the case that interactivity is not an inherent characteristic of all new media technologies, unlike digitization and convergence.
Terry Flew (2005) argues that "the global interactive games industry is large and growing, and is at the forefront of many of the most significant innovations in new media" (Flew 2005: 101). Interactivity is prominent in these online video games such as World of Warcraft, The Sims Online and Second Life. These games, which are developments of "new media," allow for users to establish relationships and experience a sense of belonging that transcends traditional temporal and spatial boundaries (such as when gamers logging in from different parts of the world interact). These games can be used as an escape or to act out a desired life. Will Wright, creator of The Sims, "is fascinated by the way gamers have become so attached to his invention-with some even living their lives through it". New media have created virtual realities that are becoming virtual extensions of the world we live in. With the creation of Second Life and Active Worlds before it, people have even more control over this virtual world, a world where anything that a participant can think of can become a reality.
New Media changes continuously because it is constantly modified and redefined by the interaction between users, emerging technologies, cultural changes, etc.
New forms of New Media are emerging like Web 2.0 tools Facebook and YouTube, along with video games and the consoles they are played on. It is helping to make video games and video game consoles branch out into New Media as well. Gamers on YouTube post videos of them playing video games they like and that people want to watch. Cultural changes are happening because people can upload their gaming experiences to a Web 2.0 tool like Facebook and YouTube for the world to see. Consoles like the Xbox One and the PlayStation 4 have WiFi connectivity and chat rooms on most of their video games that allow gamer-to-gamer conversations around the world. They also allow people to connect to YouTube, so if they stream/record a gamer, it allows for easy uploading to YouTube for the world to see. Even the older video game consoles are becoming new media because YouTube can display the walkthroughs and let's plays of the game. YouTube gaming is evolving because some YouTubers are getting wealthy and earning money from their videos. The more people that become YouTube members, the popular YouTube becomes and the more it starts emerging as a new source of media, along with video games and consoles. The chat room/online gaming/WiFi consoles are getting the highest increase in popularity because they are not only the most advanced, but because of the newest video games being created that the majority of the gaming community wants to buy, play and watch. The older video games and consoles also get popularity, but from YouTube's capabilities of uploading them to the gamer's channels for everyone to see. The older games get popularity from the communities nostalgia of the game(s), and the old school graphics and gameplay that made people see how old-school technology was the best at some point in time. Facebook helps those video games and consoles get popularity as well. People can upload the videos they create to Facebook as well. Facebook is a much larger website with a lot more users, so people use Facebook to spread their gaming content as well.
The new media industry shares an open association with many market segments in areas such as software/video game design, television, radio, mobile and particularly movies, advertising and marketing, through which industry seeks to gain from the advantages of two-way dialogue with consumers primarily through the Internet. As a device to source the ideas, concepts, and intellectual properties of the general public, the television industry has used new media and the Internet to expand their resources for new programming and content. The advertising industry has also capitalized on the proliferation of new media with large agencies running multimillion-dollar interactive advertising subsidiaries. Interactive websites and kiosks have become popular. In a number of cases advertising agencies have also set up new divisions to study new media. Public relations firms are also taking advantage of the opportunities in new media through interactive PR practices. Interactive PR practices include the use of social media[ to reach a mass audience of online social network users.
With the rise of the Internet, many new career paths were created. Before the rise, many technical jobs were seen as nerdy. The Internet led to creative work that was seen as laid-back and diverse amongst sex, race, and sexual orientation. Web design, gaming design, webcasting, blogging, and animation are all creative career paths that came with this rise. At first glance, the field of new media may seem hip, cool, creative and relaxed. What many don't realize is that working in this field is tiresome. Many of the people that work in this field don't have steady jobs. Work in this field has become project-based. Individuals work project to project for different companies. Most people are not working on one project or contract, but multiple ones at the same time. Despite working on numerous projects, people in this industry receive low payments, which is highly contrasted with the techy millionaire stereotype. It may seem as a carefree life from the outside, but it is not. New media workers work long hours for little pay and spend up to 20 hours a week looking for new projects to work on.
The ideology of new media careers as an egalitarian and stress-free environment is a myth. It is a game of networking and thriving at what you are capable of. Many workers face job instability. Inequality within this field exists due to the informality and flexibility of this career path.
Within the Industry, many Companies have emerged or transformed to adapt to the fast moving exciting opportunities that new media offers. The following companies are great examples of the changing landscape of companies/agencies whom have redeveloped, added or changed services to offer new media services.
• Brand New Media
• Adcore Creative
• Seven West Media