Photography & Art for a visual hungry world
New media are forms of media that are native to computers, computational and relying on computers for redistribution. Some examples of new media are telephones, computers, virtual worlds, single media, website games, human-computer interface, computer animation and interactive computer installations. Youth
Based on nationally representative data, a study conducted by Kaiser Family Foundation in five-year intervals in 1998–99, 2003–04, and 2008–09 found that with technology allowing nearly 24-hour media access, the amount of time young people spend with entertainment media has risen dramatically, especially among Black and Hispanic youth.Today, 8- to 18-year-olds devote an average of 7 hours and 38 minutes (7:38) to using entertainment media in a typical day (more than 53 hours a week) – about the same amount most adults spend at work per day. Since much of that time is spent 'media multitasking' (using more than one medium at a time), they actually manage to spend a total of 10 hours and 45 minutes worth of media content in those 7½ hours per day. According to the Pew Internet & American Life Project, 96% of 18- to 29-year-olds and three-quarters (75%) of teens now own a cell phone, 88% of whom text, with 73% of wired American teens using social networking websites, a significant increase from previous years. A survey of over 25000 9- to 16-year-olds from 25 European countries found that many underage children use social media sites despite the site's stated age requirements, and many youth lack the digital skills to use social networking sites safely.
The development of the new digital media demands a new educational model by parents and educators. The parental mediation become a way to manage the children's experiences with Internet, chat, videogames and social network.
A recent trend in internet is Youtubers Generation. Youtubers are young people who offer free video in their personal channel on YouTube. There are videos on games, fashion, food, cinema and music, where they offers tutorial or comments.
The role of cellular phones, such as the iPhone, has created the inability to be in social isolation, and the potential of ruining relationships. The iPhone activates the insular cortex of the brain, which is associated with feelings of love. People show similar feelings to their phones as they would to their friends, family and loved ones. Countless people spend more time on their phones, while in the presence of other people than spending time with the people in the same room or class.
Political campaigns in the United States in trying to determine the impact of new media on political campaigning and electioneering, the existing research has tried to examine whether new media supplants conventional media. Television is still the dominant news source, but new media's reach is growing. What is known is that new media has had a significant impact on elections and what began in the 2008 presidential campaign established new standards for how campaigns would be run. Since then, campaigns also have their outreach methods by developing targeted messages for specific audiences that can be reached via different social media platforms. Both parties have specific digital media strategies designed for voter outreach.
Additionally, their websites are socially connected, engaging voters before, during, and after elections. Email and text messages are also regularly sent to supporters encouraging them to donate and get involved. Some existing research focuses on the ways that political campaigns, parties, and candidates have incorporated new media into their political strategizing. This is often a multi-faceted approach that combines new and old media forms to create highly specialized strategies. This allows them to reach wider audiences, but also to target very specific subsets of the electorate. They are able to tap into polling data and in some cases harness the analytics of the traffic and profiles on various social media outlets to get real-time data about the kinds of engagement that is needed and the kinds of messages that are successful or unsuccessful. One body of existing research into the impact of new media on elections investigates the relationship between voters' use of new media and their level of political activity. They focus on areas such as "attentiveness, knowledge, attitudes, orientations, and engagement" (Owen, 2011). In references a vast body of research, Owen (2011) points out that older studies were mixed, while "newer research reveals more consistent evidence of information gain".
Some of that research has shown that there is a connection between the amount and degree of voter engagement and turnout (Owen, 2011). However, new media may not have overwhelming effects on either of those. Other research is tending toward the idea that new media has reinforcing effect, that rather than completely altering, by increasing involvement, it "imitates the established pattern of political participation" (Nam, 2012). After analyzing the Citizenship Involvement Democracy survey, Nam (2012) found that "the internet plays a dual role in mobilizing political participation by people not normally politically involved, as well as reinforcing existing offline participation." These findings chart a middle ground between some research that optimistically holds new media up to be an extremely effective or extremely ineffective at fostering political participation.
Towner (2013) found, in his survey of college students, that attention to new media increases offline and online political participation particularly for young people. His research shows that the prevalence of online media boosts participation and engagement. His work suggests that "it seems that online sources that facilitate political involvement, communication, and mobilization, particularly campaign websites, social media, and blogs, are the most important for offline political participation among young people". Deliberation When gauging effects and implications of new media on the political process, one means of doing so is to look at the deliberations that take place in these digital spaces (Halpern & Gibbs, 2013). In citing the work of several researchers, Halpern and Gibbs (2003) define deliberation to be "the performance of a set of communicative behaviors that promote thorough discussion. and the notion that in this process of communication the individuals involved weigh carefully the reasons for and against some of the propositions presented by others".
The work of Halpern and Gibbs (2013) "suggest that although social media may not provide a forum for intensive or in-depth policy debate, it nevertheless provides a deliberative space to discuss and encourage political participation, both directly and indirectly". Their work goes a step beyond that as well though because it shows that some social media sites foster a more robust political debate than do others such as Facebook which includes highly personal and identifiable access to information about users alongside any comments they may post on political topics. This is in contrast to sites like YouTube whose comments are often posted anonymously.
Ethical Issues in New Media Research
Due to the popularity of new media, social media websites (SMWs) like Facebook and Twitter are becoming increasingly popular among researchers (Moreno, Goniu, Moreno, Diekema, 2013). Although SMWs present new opportunities, they also represent challenges for researchers interested in studying social phenomena online, since it can be difficult to determine what are acceptable risks to privacy unique to social media. Some scholars (e.g. Moreno, Frost & Christakis, 2008) argue that standard Institutional Review Board (IRB) procedures provide little guidance on research protocols relating to social media in particular.
As a consequence, Moreno et al. (2013) identified three major approaches to research on social media and relevant concerns scholars should consider before engaging in social media research.
One of the major issues for observational research is whether a particular project is considered to involve human subjects. A human subject is one that “is defined by federal regulations as a living individual about whom an investigator obtains data through interaction with the individual or identifiable private information”. Moreno et al. (2013) note that if access to a social media site is public, information is considered identifiable but not private, and information gathering procedures do not require researchers to interact with the original poster of the information, then this does not meet the requirements for human subjects research. Research may also be exempt if the disclosure of participant responses outside the realm of the published research does not subject the participant to civic or criminal liability, damage the participant's reputation, employability or financial standing. Given these criteria, however, researchers still have considerable leeway when conducting observational research on social media. Many profiles on Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, and Twitter are public and researchers are free to use that data for observational research.
Users have the ability to change their privacy settings on most social media websites. Facebook, for example, provides users with the ability to restrict who sees their posts through specific privacy settings. There is also debate about whether requiring users to create a username and password is sufficient to establish whether the data is considered public or private. Historically, Institutional Review Boards considered such websites to be private, although newer websites like YouTube call this practice into question. For example, YouTube only requires the creation of a username and password to post videos and/or view adult content, but anyone is free to view general YouTube videos and these general videos would not be subject to consent requirements for researchers looking to conduct observational studies.